Why is equity share capital called ‘Risk Capital’? A holder of GDR can convert it into any other security at any time. False Encumbrance accounting is required in the accounting for payroll of governmental funds. An overdraft, which a company should keep within a limit set by the bank. Assets of the company cannot be mortgaged in favor of shareholders. Each example of the Working Capital below states the topic, the relevant reasons, and additional comments as needed. Justify your answer. Write a note on international sources of finance. Explain. Examples: Current Tax Collection Fund; Imprest Payroll Fund . Answer: Business is concerned with production and distribution of goods and services for the satisfaction of need of society. We will see the format and example of how it is done. Question 4. Debt service funds are used to report current financial resources, not long-term debt. List different types of finance. From the company’s point of view, preference shares are advantageous in the following ways: However, dividend payments on preference shares are not tax deductible in the way that interest payments on debt are. What are retained profits? The fixed assets were scrapped and written off as having no value. GDR can be listed and traded in stock exchange of any country but ADRs can be listed and traded only in the stock exchange of USA. IAS 1 sets out the overall requirements for financial statements, including how they should be structured, the minimum requirements for their content and overriding concepts such as going concern, the accrual basis of accounting and the current/non-current distinction. Current assets should be compared with the current liabilities to get a better understanding of a business’s operational efficiency. As a source of finance retained profit is better than other sources. The maturity period of a commercial paper usually ranges from In this statement, you need to effect the changes in working capital. Mr. John has ? From their standpoint, retained earnings are an attractive source of finance because investment projects can be undertaken without involving either the shareholders or any outsiders. Interest is charged (at a variable rate) on the amount by which the company is overdrawn from day to day. Name the two Indian companies which have raised money through issue of GDRs. Answer: Public deposits are the deposits raised by organizations directly from the public. Furthermore, for preference shares to be attractive to investors, the level of payment needs to be higher than for interest on debt to compensate for the additional risks. Funds required for inventory can be met through it but not others like plant and machinery, land and building or salaries of employees etc. NCERT Solutions for Class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. A business cannot function unless adequate funds are made available to it. Underutilized cash How do you record the disposal of fixed assets in the following situations. This is considered the "Purchase Method" whereupon fund balance is reserved for the amount of inventory. For the most part, commercial paper is a very safe investment because the financial situation of a company can easily be predicted over a few months. 5,00,000 in exchange for machinery worth Rs. These instruments are called EDRs when private markets are attempting to obtain Euros. State two factors affecting the fixed capital requirement of a firm. Purchase & redemption fees. It is very important to assess financial needs of the organization and the identification of various sources of finance. This guide is designed to help you as a self-managed super fund (SMSF) trustee when valuing assets for superannuation purposes. fair market value for each asset. Question 9. Investments are classified as current assets if the company intends to sell within a year. Answer: Public Deposits: Deposits accepted from public directly by the companies are called public deposits. (d) Transfer the goods from one place to another Valuation guidelines for self-managed super funds. While NAV is an important element of mutual fund trading for investors to understand, it is not a replacement for other information about the mutual fund. Answer: John’s investment depends on many factors: Question 2. Difficult procedure: As compared to commercial papers and trade credit, it involves many legal and paper formalities. Preference shares are not suitable for which kind of investors? It emphasizes accountability rather than profitability, and is used by Nonprofit organizations and by governments. (d) 5. The debt is usually issued at a discount, reflecting prevailing market interest rates. Under GASB 34 , these noncurrent activities are reported on the government-wide statements only. (a) Share profits earned by the lessor Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) (а) Generated through outsiders such as suppliers (c) Owner’s Funds and Borrowed Funds Return to main page. If he wants control in the company or participation in management of the company, he should invest in equity shares. (c) India (d) USA The fixed assets were sold for 2,000. Debentures have certain merits and demerits from business as well as debenture holders point of view. Therefore, it is right to say that retained earnings are not a good source from the values point of view as it is the right of equity shareholders. (c) The auditors (d) The owners Answer: Equity shares are the most important sources of raising long term capital by a company. Answer: Question 4. It is a negotiable instrument and can be traded freely like any other security. (a) Canada (b) China [[Below is a discussion of shareholder fees . Example List of Current Asset Types and Classes. Preference shares are preferred by company but not by investors. If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. Current Assets are those business assets that will be converted into cash within one year, and assets that will be used up in the operation of a business within one year. Shares cannot be converted into debentures whereas debentures can be converted into shares. ADRs are issued in As soon as a decision is taken to start a business, requirement of funds initiates. They are not technically funds, but they share similarities. Do you agree with this view? New companies need expensive equipments to run the business: office, equipment leasing from larger companies like Apple. The bank performs three types of functions namely, assistance to other financial institutions, direct assistance to industrial concerns and promotion and coordination of financial technique service. Disposal of Fixed Assets Double Entry Example. The procedure of obtaining deposits is simple and does not contain restrictive conditions. FINRA rules also require that the 12b-1 fees not exceed 0.25% of the fund's average annual net assets in order to call itself a no load fund. The lease agreement does not bring any change in raising capacity of an organization. Answer: Trade Credit: Trade credit is the credit extended by the trader to another to purchase goods and services. Fund balance is reported from the perspective of the underlying resources within fund balance. The current ratio is an example of a liquidity ratio, like the quick ratio and cash ratio, used to compare a company’s current assets. State various sources of long term funds. Calculation Examples of Working Capital Example #1. The management of many companies believe that retained earnings are funds which do not cost anything, although this is not true. Restrictive clauses: Bank credit has many restrictive clauses which includes mortgage on company’s assets or ineligibility to raise funds from specific sources. (b) Makes the payment on behalf of the client At one time, asset manager valuations were thought to gravitate toward about 2% of AUM. It facilitates the purchase of supplies without immediate payment. What are the differences between Equity Shares and Preference Shares? An asset is a resource that you own or control that is expected to produce future economic value. Answer: Debenture holders are creditors of the company. Answer: Question 10. Answer: Equity shares and retained earnings. Answer: Debentures provide following advantages over issue of equity shares. Profit re-invested as retained earnings is profit that could have been paid as a dividend. Very few Vanguard funds charge fees when you buy and sell shares. (c) Generated through issue of shares Public company usually does not create a charge on the assets of the company. Commercial paper is not usually backed by any form of collateral, so only firms with high-quality debt ratings will easily find buyers without having to offer a substantial discount (higher cost) for the debt issue. financed from long–term funds.” The excess of current assets over current liabilities is termed as ‘Net working capital’. Some funds are needed immediately. Answer: Following financial instruments are used in international financing: Question 6. Long Answer Type Questions American Depository Receipts (ADRs): The depository receipts issued by the company in the USA are called American Depository Receipts. Explain trade credit and bank credit as sources of short term finance for business enterprises. Question 13. Example 2 - In September 2012, an employee signs up for a training class to be taken in November, 2012 (all other rules allowing such an obligation are met - see Question 12). it also gives guidance on which policy may be most appropriate for your circumstances. It is used more frequently with items like computers and electronic items which become obsolete soon. If he wants perfect certainty, he should invest in public deposits or debentures as rate of return is pre fixed. Dividends do not have to be paid in a year in which profits are poor, while this is not the case with interest payments on long term debt (loans or debentures). Funds required for purchasing current assets is an example of Answer: IDR is an instrument in the form of a depository receipt created by the Indian depository in India against the underlying equity shares of the issuing company. Therefore, it is unreasonable to transfer funds to general reserves which are called retained profits if there are exceptionally good profits. Examples include payment of salaries and wages and overhead expenses for the processing of raw materials. Question 3. They receive annual interest/ benefits (VIP status or free passes) regardless of whether or not the business is making money. Answer: Equity shareholders are called the owners of the company. Fees vary from 0.25% to … Differentiate between a share and a debenture. Write a short note on the features of GDRs. Question 12. Question 1. Companies don’t have to chase up their own debtors. Explain in detail the types of debenture a company can issue. NCERT Solutions Class 11 Business StudiesBusiness Studies Sample Papers, I. Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property. Answer: Following preferential rights are enjoyed by the preference shareholders: Question 5. Public deposits are the deposits that are raised directly from Answer: The Lessors. In an NGO's annual audited financial statements, fixed assets are commonly accounted for in a variety of ways by different NGOs around the world. Answer: Sources of raising long term and short term finance are shown in the chart given below: Question 3. There are many different assets that can be included in this category, but I will only discuss the most common ones. If an organization wants to expand its inventory level so as to meet expected rise in demand, it may use trade credit. You recognize deferred tax asset to move a chunk of current year tax expense to future period to better match the tax expense reported in each period with earnings before taxes. For example, because of taxation considerations, they would rather make a capital profit (which will only be taxed when shares are sold) than receive current income, and then finance through retained earnings would be preferred to other methods. It is dependent on public response and can’t be relied on if financial needs are urgent. Thus, in the column of sources of funds of the statement is displayed only those credits in fixed account (fixed assets or fixed liabilities) which were offset by debits to current accounts (any current asset or current liability). A loan may have a fixed rate of interest or a variable interest rate, so that the rate of interest charged will be adjusted every three, six, nine or twelve months in line with recent movements in the Base Lending Rate. The owner of the asset is called lessor and the party who uses the assets is called lessee. Answer: Size of business and nature of business. For example, alternation and modification in assets may not be allowed. Merits of Trade Credit. It provides added service: maintenance and upgrading. Current assets are assets that are convertible to cash in less than a year; noncurrent assets are long-term assets. The use of retained earnings avoids the possibility of a change in control resulting from an issue of new shares. They also have a right to participate in the premium at the time of redemption. The risk of obsolesce is borne by the lessor. Describe briefly the factors responsible for selecting a source of finance. Mutual fund. Under the lease agreement, the lessee gets the right to Question 23. There are many sources of finance. Redeemable preference shares are normally treated as debt when gearing is calculated. Answer: Its objective was to coordinate the activities of other financial institutions including commercial banks. (b) Participate in the management of the organization They also have a right to participate in the premium at the time of redemption. Current assets are the key assets that your business uses up during a 12-month period and will likely not be there the next year. They get dividend at a fixed rate and dividend is given on these shares before any dividend on equity shares. What is a trade credit? Answer: WIPRO and ICICI, Question 14. Who regulates the acceptance of public deposits? Fixed Capital Requirements: In order to start business, funds are required to purchase fixed assets like land and building, plant and machinery, and furniture and fixures. Many SMSFs will experience a drop in asset values due to the economic impact of COVID-19. Middle term credit sources include loans from banks, public deposits, loans from financial institutions and lease financing. Both the concepts of working capital have their own points of importance. assets of the company can be mortgaged in favor of debenture holders. Scope of retained earnings is limited by amount of profits. Answer: A lease is a contractual agreement, in which the owner of the asset grants the other party the right to use the asset in return for a periodic payment, but retains the title over the property. In other words, it is the cost of purchasing a substitute asset for the current asset being used by a company. Explain. Product Advisor returns a message indicating eligible assets are less than the funds required to be verified. Question 15. Medium-term loans are loans for a period of three to ten years. Other borrowing costs are recognised as an expense. Question 11. Discuss its merits and demerits. Preference shares also have a right to participate in excess profits left after payment being made to equity shares. The management of many companies believes that retained earnings are funds which do not cost anything, although this is not true. The dividend yield traditionally offered on preference dividends has been too low to provide an attractive investment compared with the interest yields on loan stock in view of the additional risk involved. The following are the most common non-operating assets: 1. Will not be converted into cash within one year. There is a greater degree of operational freedom and flexibility as the funds are generated internally. It enhances capacity of the business to absorb unexpected losses. Discuss the financial instruments used in international financing. Answer: Different types of preference shares are discussed below: Question 2. In leasing agreement what right is given to lessee? (c) Working capital requirement (d) Lease financing What are retained earnings? (a) Question 5. What is lease financing? List sources of raising long-term and short term finance. Answer: Yes, we agree. Debt factoring is a financial service that allows a business to raise funds based on the value owed to them by their debtors. Another factor that may be of importance is the financial and taxation position of the company’s shareholders. Definition: Replacement cost is the amount of money required to replace an existing asset with an equally valued or similar asset at the current market price. Answer: Reserve Bank of India. Question 5. Discuss the sources from which a large industrial enterprise can raise capital for financing modernisation and expansion. What are the two important functions of factors? A buyer's word is not enough. So, for example, less-risky investments like certificates of deposit (CDs) or savings accounts generally earn a low rate of return, and higher-risk investments like stocks generally earn a higher rate of return. 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Not take away your responsibility to manage investments prudently of customer relationships was to coordinate the of... Is the difference between these two lies in the premium at the time of redemption fund.. Customer relationships not contain restrictive conditions deposit revenues and pay expenses by the entity and have a team. From an issue of GDRs deposits in commercial banks in excess profits left after payment being made to shares. Purchase of goods and services for the current aside apart from the public borne by the companies called! Service potential ’ means essentially the usefulness of a firm the risk of obsolesce is funds required for purchasing current assets is an example of by the.... Sell it back to the use of retained earnings as a percentage of the given alternatives: Question.! And wages and overhead expenses for the current financial resources, not long-term debt: deposits from... Along with their objectives: Question 3 medium term funds statements get connected with the investment any:.
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